A Population-Based Policy and Systems Change Approach to Prevent and Control Hypertension
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The Utah target is The percentage of adults who reported being told they had high blood pressure was much lower for women than men in every age group. The gender differences were less pronounced by age 65 and over. In this age group, the rate of high blood pressure was Rates of high blood pressure varied considerably among income categories. The rate was Doctor-diagnosed high blood pressure varied by educational level. Among college graduates, the rate was These rates represent adults aged 25 and over. The rate of doctor-diagnosed high blood pressure was not significantly different between Hispanic In , Utah had lower age-adjusted high blood pressure prevalence What Is Being Done?
The purpose of the consolidation was to ensure a productive, collaborative, and efficient program focused on health outcomes. EPICC aims to reduce the incidence of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke by targeting risk factors including reducing obesity, increasing physical activity and nutritious food consumption, and improving diabetes and hypertension control.
Under Pressure: Getting a Handle on Hypertension | IN FOCUS,
Million Hearts is an initiative co-led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Million Hearts aimed to reduce the number of heart attacks and strokes in the U. The Utah Million Hearts Coalition has initiated efforts to educate staff in primary care clinics on the proper techniques for measuring high blood pressure.
Evidence-based Practices Health care organizations can improve high blood pressure control among their patient populations. This report describes overall patterns in cardiovascular disease and risk factors at the state and national levels and among Utah sub-populations age group, sex, race, ethnicity, and Utah Small Area. Relevant Population Characteristics High blood pressure is one of the most common primary diagnoses in the U. Institute of Medicine, Risk for developing hypertension increases with age.
Report at a Glance
Oral contraceptives may increase risk of high blood pressure in women, especially if the women are older or obese American Heart Association Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update, The IOM found that high blood pressure is a "neglected disease. The IOM identified some factors in the health care system that contribute to the problem. These included poor adherence to blood pressure treatment guidelines and cost barriers for patients who need to take high blood pressure medication. Risk Factors Some risk factors for high blood pressure cannot be changed, such as family history and genetics, but some can be reduced through lifestyle changes.
These include engaging in regular physical activity, reducing excess weight, tobacco cessation or abstinence, and low-sodium diet. Certain medications can affect blood pressure as well.
- IBIS-PH - Complete Health Indicator Report - Blood Pressure: Doctor-diagnosed Hypertension.
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Individuals are encouraged to discuss their risk factors with a physician and monitor their blood pressure regularly. Health Status Outcomes Uncontrolled high blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart attack, stroke, congestive heart failure, and kidney failure. Doctor-diagnosed Hypertension, Utah and U. The rate of hypertension among Utah adults was significantly lower than the rate for U. Data Notes Doctor-diagnosed hypertension is based on the answer to the question: "Have you ever been told by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional that you have high blood pressure?
Data in IBIS charts have been updated back to forward to reflect this change.
With this change, age-adjustment for Utah is more consistent with both the U. Doctor-diagnosed Hypertension by Age and Sex, Utah, In general, high blood pressure prevalence increased with age. Utah males had higher rates of high blood pressure in every age category. A strong central role for governments to oversee a reduction in salt additives to processed foods is indicated to be the cornerstone of successful programs.
Population Health & Primary Care Information
Nevertheless, health care professionals and scientists play a critical advocacy role. A slide set about the policy statement on the WHL website is to assist clinicians and scientists advocate [World Hypertension League To facilitate the uptake of the policy, the WHL has conducted a symposium on salt reduction at its regional meeting in Africa and at the International Society of Hypertension meeting. Salt, sodium, mg, gm, mmol, and meq: what does it all mean?
To add to the confusion, some more recent investigators indicate sodium in gm, sometimes do not indicate if they are referring to salt or sodium and put different units e. At a minimum, authors should use consistent units and indicate how to convert units to those generally used salt gm and sodium mg.
Further, different publications indicate the same level of salt intake as being high or low and in describing reductions in dietary salt indicate the same reduction as being large or modest. The WHL has developed recommended nomenclature for describing salt sodium intake based on diets of natural food without added salt and on current recommended intake of salt by the WHO Recommendations for describing reductions in salt intake were based on the range of reductions in dietary salt from randomized controlled trials lasting four or more weeks.
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The WHL hopes that use of common terminology will help achieve a common understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of dietary salt and of interventions to reduce dietary salt. Multiple groups and individuals using different and conflicting statistics and recommending differing interventions are confusing to policy makers and the public. Consistent use of accurate up to date information is critical to advocacy efforts. However, it is often difficult to obtain up to date accurate information that has been endorsed by credible organizations on the impact of dietary salt on health and of hypertension on health.
The WHL with the International Society of Hypertension therefore has undertaken to develop and annually update facts sheets on dietary salt and also on hypertension 20 , A slide set on the WHL website also provides standardized information of the impact of high dietary salt on health [World Hypertension League Although the facts sheets produced by the WHL are aimed at the global population, the WHL recognizes that most interventions to reduce dietary salt and control hypertension will be at national or community level.
To help address this, the WHL has published methods on how to obtain accurate data and statistics to develop national level facts sheets for hypertension and for reducing dietary salt Throughout the history of research on dietary salt, there have been some studies that have found no impact or even a harmful impact of reducing dietary salt. Many of these studies have serious overt methodological flaws or weaknesses such as use of a single spot urine sodium to assess usual salt intake, failure to properly address confounding risk factors, reverse causality whereby people who are sick less but die more , authors with conflicts of interest, and inappropriate selection of studies for analysis meta-analysis that include studies lasting less than one week with extreme changes in salt intake 23 - It is also within reason that, perhaps to increase citations, several controversial studies have been published in high impact journals.
The WHL has highlighted some of these weaknesses in publications and symposia and has called for the setting of recommended standards for conducting clinical and population research on dietary salt 27 , An international coalition lead by the WHL has been formed and will develop these recommended standards in Once the standards are set, regular systematic reviews of the literature will be conducted and, if deemed necessary by the overseeing committee, new recommendations for dietary salt will be developed.